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1.      The Offa’s Dyke Journal is published annually, and hosted on an online open-access platform with JAS Arqueología.

2.      The journal is supported by the University of Chester and the Offa’s Dyke Association.

3.      Print issues will be sold and distributed by the Offa’s Dyke Association.

4.      Editors are Professor Howard Williams (Professor of Archaeology, University of Chester) and Liam Delaney (Postgraduate Researcher, University of Chester);

5.      The editors are supported by an Editorial Board, comprised of the Offa’s Dyke Collaboratory conveners and other key experts in the history, archaeology and heritage of early medieval landscapes, frontiers and borderlands.

6.      The Journal aims to publish research articles, normally of between 5000 and 10,000 words including bibliography. Longer pieces might be considered for publication at the discretion of the Editors.

7.      Shorter contributions are welcome of c. 3–5000 words including bibliography. However, there is no separate ‘notes’ or ‘shorter contributions’ sections in the Journal.

8.      Biannual call for papers and submission deadlines serve to promote the journal. Details of the journal are also hosted on the Collaboratory website and via its blog:

9.      Papers may be submitted for consideration at any time of the year to the Editors.

10.    Material received will be considered for the next available issue where possible. The Editors reserve the right to hold material back for subsequent issues when necessary but articles are published independently online ahead of joining the next available issue of the Journal, meaning that publication is never delayed because a volume is full.

11.    Prospective authors should be aware that original papers published in the Offa’s Dyke Journal are subject to rigorous peer review by multiple referees. The precise number of referees consulted will depend on the nature and scope of the submission.

12.    On occasion, the Journal will commission the reprinting of articles relevant to the journal’s themes but previously published elsewhere, where they (a) retain currency for researchers regarding either the history of research and/or current ideas, and (b) hitherto haven’t been fully available to researchers in a digital medium and/or a readily accessible venue.

13.    Comments by referees may remain confidential at the discretion of the Editors.

14.    The identities of referees will remain anonymous where possible.

15.    Authors will be expected to sign the ODJ copyright agreement once the article enters production.

16.    The Institute will normally grant permission to authors, or their executors, for a contribution to be reprinted in whole or in part elsewhere after it has appeared in the Journal, but permission must be sought in writing to the Editors.



17.    Publication open-access will be free to authors of notes, reports and articles, apart from the following cases.

18.    It is expected that articles which result from archaeological or architectural recording which have been funded by English Heritage, CADW, Historic Scotland and DoENI, and by developers as part of the development process, will be supported by grants towards the publication costs. Authors should confirm in writing that their papers will receive a grant at the time of submission and provide the name and address of the relevant inspector.

19.    For longer articles, and those containing numerous colour illustrations, it may be necessary to ask authors for a contribution to production costs.



20.    Submissions should also include a list of up to five ‘keywords’, an abstract of c. 100 words, and a brief biography of the author(s). The abstract should not include references or refer to illustrations within the article itself.

21.    All copy (including quotations, appendices, lists, bibliographies and captions) must be submitted via email to the Editors as Word documents (not pdfs), double line- spaced, left-aligned, and allowing wide margins. The font size should be 12 point.

22.    Please avoid attempting to emulate the style of the published journal; avoid the use of italics, emboldened and underlined text and avoid caps lock functions.

23.    Sparse footnotes can be included but Endnotes should not be included. All pages must be numbered.

24.    Papers must be accompanied by a scheme indicating the divisions of the text and the relative importance of the various headings, sub-headings, etc.

25.    Both line drawings and photographs will be numbered in a single sequence within each paper and should be given a number in the text, thus (Fig. 9). Please note where approximately images should appear.

26.    Tables must be separately numbered.

27.    A list of captions for figures and tables should be included.

28.    The beginning of each paragraph should be demarcated by an extra line space.



29.    Introduction

The rules laid out here are based substantially upon the MHRA Style Book, the Concise Oxford English Dictionary (tenth edition). The guide here is intended to provide (i) a ready guide to practice, (ii) further detail on the implementation of rules, and (iii) points at which RAI practice diverges from that detailed in the MHRA Style Book.

Where appropriate the guidance refers to the relevant place in the Style Book, thus [MHRA 5.5].

30.    Spelling

The Offa’s Dyke Journal takes a conservative approach to spelling and the use of expressions. Contractions which are now used in some printed texts, including can’t, wouldn’t and couldn’t, remain unacceptable.

Note: ‘ise’/’yse’, not ‘ize’/’yze’ spellings are used.

Generally speaking, foreign words adopted into the English language are printed without accents and in normal roman script. Expressions which are still felt to be foreign are given accents and are italicized. The only exception is words ending with a final é accent retain all accents, but appear in roman characters [MHRA 4.2].

It is a subjective judgement to determine whether a word is used sufficiently often to have become anglicised. For guidance, where words or phrases are found in the Oxford English Dictionary, they will be taken to have been adopted into the Engilsh language. Those not found there should usually be considered ‘foreign’.

Expressions and words which are normally printed in italics in the Journal include: Grubenhaus (plural Grubenhäuser); Terminus post quem and Terminus ante quem (where possible they should be avoided as they can be confusing).

31.    Place-names

The preferred spelling of British place-names is that used by the Ordnance Survey in the most recent editions. Names which have been lost (no longer in current usage), or for which an archaic form is used, should be italicized. For example, Verulamium and Hamwic should be italicized.

Where the location of a place is not well known, it should be accompanied by the modern administrative county, pre-1974 county if different and, if appropriate, the parish name when first used. A gazetteer of pre-1974 place names is given at

Anglicized forms of foreign names should be used where common (Rheims rather than Reims, Vienna rather than Wien, Cardiff rather than Caerdyff).

Otherwise, current foreign forms should be adopted.

American states and Canadian provinces are abbreviated to two letters without stops.

32.    Hyphens

Compound adjectives are usually hyphenated. Note the difference between: ‘in the tenth century’ and ‘the tenth-century manuscript’.

Adjectives ending in –ly are not hyphenated

The prefix ‘mid’ is usually hyphenated. Note the difference between, e.g. ‘in the mid- fifth century’ and ‘in the early fifth century’

There is a general tendency for compound words in common use to drop their hyphens, but the definition of common use is not entirely clear. Since no overall rules apply, it seems sensible to follow the advice of the MHRA: consult OED and be consistent.

Compass directions which lie between the cardinal points are hyphenated:

north-east wind; north-north-west aspect. Note also: north-west / south-east.

Compass directions are not given with capitals unless abbreviated. Compass directions should normally not be abbreviated, unless the repetition of directions makes the text unwieldy.

33.    Use of capital letters

Initial capital letters are used for the following:

the titles of individuals (although it is preferable not to use titles to avoid over- formality) and place-names when referring to named individuals, including where they are contracted;

King William II visited Glastonbury Abbey where he met the abbot; the King addressed his earls in the church of the abbey;

the River Ouse;

the names of eras, e.g. the early Anglo-Saxon period and the Middle Bronze Age, but not more general time frames, including the prehistoric period and the medieval period when such eras are used adjectivally, including Anglo-Saxon pottery and Neolithic causewayed enclosures [contra MHRA 7.5];

terms of art, including the Middle Ages, the Continent and Old English;

for specific geological deposits, such as the Lower Chalk, but not for geological terms in common use, including chalk, sandstone and brickearth;

for specific botanical terms, such as Puccinellia maritima and Sea purslane, but not for plant names in common use, such as holly and bracken;

for specific artefact types, where there might otherwise be ambiguity. For example, Peterborough Ware and Border Ware are capitalized, because in the first case, it is understood that not all such pieces of pottery originated at Peterborough, and in the second, it is being used as a term of art;

when using a common noun as a proper noun in, for example, Room 17, Table 4 (when it occurs in the article) or Building 2.

34.    Quotation marks

Use single quotation marks throughout, with double marks for a quotation within a quotation (e.g., ‘text text “text” text text’). Displayed quotations have no quotation marks. Any quotations within a displayed quotation should carry single marks.

35.    Abbreviations, contractions and symbols

A clear distinction needs to be made between:

abbreviations – the final letter of an abbreviation is different from the final letter of the full word. The abbreviation has a full stop such as: a.m., c., illus. (when singular), etc.;

contractions – the final letter is the same as the final letter of the word. Contractions do not have a full stop, e.g. Dr, Mr, illus (when a plural);

commonly used abbreviations may be given without full stops – AD, BL, VCH [institution], HMSO. Less well-known organizations may be abbreviated in a similar manner after giving the first citation in full – Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England: RCHME. Abbreviations should be given in italics if the full word would also have appeared in italics – SPQR, VCH Sussex [book]. Where there is doubt about the widespread use of an abbreviation, it should be spelled out in the first citation;

abbreviations using the lower case should always appear with stops to avoid ambiguity: c. pl., pp., e.g. (except measurements – see below);

abbreviations and contractions can often be avoided and i.e. and e.g. should not be used whenever they may be conveniently omitted;

in citing the works of others, use fig. and illus., fig., tab., etc. (lower case), but drawings and illustrations are always cited as Illus. (upper case initial letter) when they occur in the same article.

The following categories are not abbreviated, unless necessary in, for example, tables:

•       compass directions;

•       days of the week;

•       months of the year.

Ordinals are spelled out (second, not 2nd) and in any case should never appear in upper case. Dates should appear in the following form: 5 November 2003.

36.    Personal names

It is usually sufficient to refer to a person by their surname. Where essential to distinguish between authors discussed with the same surname, initials of personal names are followed by a full stop and a space, for example, B. W. Cunliffe.

37.    Symbols

The following symbols are not used – & [ampersand], ך [Tyronian ‘and’], #.

The following symbols may be used – %, ° [degree of temperature or degrees of angle].

38.    Numbers

All numbers, up to and including one hundred, and round numbers of hundreds, thousands and millions should be spelled out, unless they are measurements:

fifty-eight monks, 58 mm, five hundred books, 515 books. The main exceptions to this rule are page numbers and dates.

Numbers below 9999 are written without a comma. Those above take commas separating groups of three digits.

The numeral in measurements should always be separated by a space from the type of unit, for example, 3 km.

Roman numerals are not used, except for:

Roman legions;

ordinals of kings and popes;

(in lower case) for prefatory page numbers in books where the original is in roman numerals;

certain expressions, such as World War II;

acts of plays;

certain documentary references, for example BL, Cotton MS Vitellius E XIV.

Note that published volume numbers of journals and series should never be given using roman numerals.

39.    Measurements

The SI standard units for distance are the kilometre, metre and the millimetre; the hectare (ha) for area; the tonne, kilogramme (kg) and gram (g) for weight; litre and cubic (l) centimetre (cc) for volume. Where measurements have been taken to the nearest centimetre and a spurious claim to greater accuracy might be implied by expressing them in millimetres, they may be rendered as two decimal places of a metre, e.g. 0.35 m instead of 350 mm.

In cases where measurements have been made in Imperial units or where the use of Imperial dimensions greatly facilitates comparison with previous literature, they may be used in the text, but metric equivalents should be given in brackets immediately following, e.g. 4 ft 6½ in. by 1 ft 9 in. (1.38 m x 0.53 m). In quotations from other authors using only Imperial units, metric equivalents should be inserted in square brackets, for example [1.38 m x 0.53 m]. Note the spacing and punctuation in these examples. Uniquely, inch is abbreviated with a full stop to avoid ambiguity.

Measurements should be given in the form 1.5 m by 0.9 m – not 1.50 m by 0.90 m, but for exact measurements as 1.0 m.

Ranges can be in the form 0.5–0.65 m.

40.    Currency

Round sums of money should be spelled out:

e.g. five hundred dollars.

For other sums, pre-decimal British currency should be expressed in the following form – £3 13s. 4d., 6s. 8d.

Decimal British and foreign currency should be expressed in the following forms –

£123.34, 34p, $500, DM 25, €34.50, 8 F. Note the spacing and position of the symbol.

41.    Dates

Recent dates should appear in the following form – 5 November 2003.

Dates which fall within a regnal year and across a calendar year may be expressed as – 1221/2.

A specific date falling within a date-range is shown in historical writing as - 1221×25.

Ranges of dates are expressed in the shortest form without ambiguity – e.g. 1221– 1225, 1221–1235, AD 43, 150–100 BC, a first- to second-century brooch.

Give centuries and millennia as, for example: 5th century BC, 2nd century AD etc. For specific years, the letters BC should follow the date, preceded by a space (e.g., 490 BC); the letters AD should precede the date, also with a space between the two (e.g., AD 499).

Decades are expressed without the use of the apostrophe – e.g. 1850s.

If the date is approximate, indicate this with ‘c.’ followed by a space and the date; in this case both BC and AD follow the date (e.g., c. 733 BC; c. AD 353).

The use of the slash should not be used for alternatives, except in the instance shown above.

42.    Radiocarbon dates

Radiocarbon dates should always be cited together with their laboratory reference number and should be presented in the following format using the INTCAL98 calibration published in the journal Radiocarbon 40 (1998), or the OxCal calibration published in Radiocarbon 37 (1995), and should state the probability level used.

Earlier calibrations are not acceptable. Advice on recalibrating dates may be obtained from the laboratory which provided the dates. It is also good practice to indicate the material and context from which the sample was taken.

In many cases it will be most appropriate to collect this information into a single table, which may take a number of formats. An example is given below:

For date number Q-3047: the uncalibrated date is 2945 ± 40 14C BP (Q-3047): the calibrated date is 1250-1230 cal. BC (Q-3047) at the 68-per cent probability level.


1305–1280 cal. BC (Q-3047) at the 95-per cent probability level. Please note the punctuation and capitalization used.

Date derived from dendrochronological determination should give the error margin and laboratory reference number.

Please note that radiocarbon dates that are subject to Bayesian statistical analysis are italicized by convention.

Refer to:

Millard, A. R. 2015. Conventions for reporting radiocarbon determinations, Radiocarbon 56(2): 555–59

43.    Addresses

Addresses are given in the following form:

181–3 High Street, Grantchester.

Note the use of a single digit after the hyphen and the absence of a comma after the number.

44.    Acknowledgements

It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that acknowledgements are accurate and fair but also concise. Acknowledgements need not be exhaustive; more detailed acknowledgements can be placed with project archives.

The following points should serve as a guide:

•       Lists of individuals, organisations and institutions should be separated.

•       Lists of individuals, organisations and institutions should be acknowledged in alphabetical order unless there is a substantive difference in the qualitative and quantity of their contribution.

•       Avoid titles in acknowledgements: it looks unnecessarily deferential. Please Acknowledge:

•       Distinctive circumstances in which the research was conducted, or the paper was written, deserve acknowledgement if they helpfully situate the research and explain its focus, and this is not mentioned in the main text itself (e.g. when the fieldwork/survey/writing/laboratory/keynote address took place) or perhaps if the research was conducted a long time ago.

•       Professionals and amateur archaeologists should be acknowledged for their critical observations and comments on drafts of manuscripts.

•       If pertinent, feel free to acknowledge if the article stemmed from a public lecture or keynote address at a particularly notable venue

•       Research stemming from projects receiving a grant should acknowledge the awarding body(ies)

•       Granting permissions for image reproduction should be acknowledged in the relevant captions as well as in the Acknowledgements.

•       Illustrators and photographers should be acknowledged in relevant illustration captions as well as in the Acknowledgements.

•       Institutions closely associated with the research should be acknowledged (universities, museums, etc) if they are not mentioned as an affiliation or address of the author or elsewhere in the text.

•       All contributors to the article should be acknowledged as authors, but occasionally it might be more appropriate to list additional supportive individuals in the acknowledgements where authorship is not warranted

•       Individuals and institutions that shared unpublished data or access to artefacts, art, materials, buildings, monuments and/or landscapes for research to be conducted should be acknowledged

•       Contributing authors are named at the front of the article, and at the start of the sections they author/co-author. However, it is sometimes necessary to mentioned them again in the acknowledgements with their specialisms identified if this is not apparent in the text itself, or if some of the contributors only contribute to online supplementary material: e.g. Gordon Brown (seeds), Kurt Cobain (human remains), Marilyn Monroe (geophysics)

•       For site-based and landscape projects, acknowledgements to land-owners who gave permission for the work

•       Principal local volunteers and key staff should be named.

•       Supervisors of research stemming from undergraduate dissertations, Masters and doctoral theses

•       Referees (both those named and anonymous) should be acknowledged if they have been a substantive impact on the content of the article.

Please Avoid Acknowledging:

•       Family and friends (living or dead) unless their contribution was exceptional

•       Entire workforces of archaeological fieldwork (unless it is a discrete and small number of individuals or can be acknowledged collectively: ‘the staff of…’, ‘volunteers from…’)

•       Contexts, organisers, participants and audiences of presentations (funding to attend and present research might be acknowledged as research funders, (see above). Occasionally, exceptional points and insights offered might be acknowledged if they affect significantly the article itself.

•       If the article stems from research conducted in fashion obvious from the text, details need not be repeated in the acknowledgements.

•       Animals, plants and minerals

•       Fictional characters, supernatural beings and apparitions

•       The Editors; it’s all in a day’s work!


Citations and bibliographies

45.    General

Only works cited should be listed in the bibliography. Page numbers of articles etc. should refer to the whole of the article, not just the passage of interest.

The Offa’s Dyke Journal uses only Harvard-style references. Footnotes are not for citations, but for sparse use for supporting information. Endnotes cannot be used. Authors are cited in date order, separated by semi-colons, and if there are multiple instances of the same author, they are further ordered by chronology – e.g. (Cunliffe 1975; 1983: 21; Collis 1989: 14).

Citation of more than two authors should be in the form Everson et al. – all authors to be listed in the bibliography.

In the bibliography, Mc and Mac should both be treated as if they are Mac. St should be listed as if spelled Saint.

Foreign names such as de, von, van etc. are usually lower case, except in anglicised names:

Goethe, J. W. von; Klerk, P. W. de;

De Quincey, T. [list under ‘Q’].

Note that the bibliography always follows the appendices. Note: Ibid. must not be used.

46.    Documentary sources

The list of references is organized in the following order at the end of the article:

•       unpublished documentary sources;

•       published documentary sources;


•       published works;


•       unpublished works;

•       published works;


•       manuscript sources;

•       unpublished;

•       published;


•       textual sources;

•       unpublished;

•       published.

Where there are few unpublished works, it is often convenient to include them in a single list with the published works.

Unpublished documents are listed in the references as follows: Leicestershire Record Office –Leics. R. O., 15D55/26a         Specification for new pewing and putting in new galleries to Appleby Church, undated.

Note the use of the comma after the repository and the date (or reference to the fact that it is undated) at the end of the description. Note that many record repositories have a standard abbreviation – such as the BL for British Library – and this should be used in preference to any other. Note that no points are used where all words are abbreviated with initial letters.

There are some problems in the citation of modern publication of historic documents. Works with distinctive or well-known titles present few problems and may be abbreviated. Longer titles may be necessary where the first part is not distinctive and is not readily susceptible to abbreviation:

Feet of Fines of Sussex. An Abstract of Feet of Fines relating to the county of Sussex from 2 Richard I to 33 Henry III (Sussex Record Society 2), ed. L. F. Salzmann, Lewes, Sussex Record Society, 1903

Red Book of Worcester. The Red Book of Worcester, ed. M. Hollings, four vols, Worcester: Worcester Historical Society, 1934–50

Rot. Hund. Rotuli Hundredorum Tempore Henrici III et Edwardi I, ed. W. Illingworth and J. Caley, two vols, London: Record Commissioners, 1812–18

47.    Other works – Ancient and Medieval Sources

Literary works should be separately listed before other published works and cited using the author and short title. Titles may contain abbreviations, if appropriate:

Alberti, On Architecture        Alberti, L. B., Ten Books on Architecture (trans. J. Leoni), 1955. London: Tiranti

Bede, Hist. Ecc.   Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum (ed. C. Plummer), 1896. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Homer, Iliad        Homer, The Iliad (trans. R. A. Lattimore), 1951. Chicago: University of Chicago Press


Alexander, J.J.G. 1978. A Survey of the Illuminated Manuscripts of the British Isles, 1, Insular Manuscripts from the 6th to the 9th Century. London: Harvey Miller

Allison, K.J. (ed.) 1976. Victoria History of the County of York: East Riding, 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mackie, E.W. 1974. Dun Mor Vaul: An Iron Age Broch on Tiree. Glasgow: Glasgow University Press.

48.    Monograph and Fascicule Series

Cunliffe, B. 2001. Mount Batten, Plymouth. A Prehistoric and Roman Port. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 26.

Inker, P. 2006. The Anglo-Saxon Relief Style. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports British Series 410.

Neal, D.S. 1974. The Excavation of the Roman villa in Gadebridge Park, Hemel Hempstead, London: Research Reports of the Society of Antiquaries of London 31.

Ford, S. 1987. Chronological and functional aspects of flint assemblages, in A. Brown and M. Edmonds (eds) Lithic Analysis and Later British Prehistory. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports British Series 162, 67–85.

Briden, C.M. and Stocker, D.A. 1987. The tower of the church of St Mary Bishophill Junior, in L.P. Wenham, R.A. Hall, C.M. Briden and D.A. Stocker, St Mary Bishophill Junior and St Mary Castlegate, Archaeol. York, 8/2, London: Council for British Archaeology, 84–146,

49.    Contributions in books

Burdukiewicz, J.M. 2000. The backed biface assemblages of east central Europe, in A. Ronen and M. Weinstein-Evron (eds) Toward Modern Humans. The Yabrudian and Micoquian 400–50 k-years ago. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 850: 155–166.

Frayer, D.W. 1997. Ofnet: evidence for a Mesolithic massacre, in D.L. Martin and D.W. Frayer (eds) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach: 181–216.

Jones, G.D.B. and Lewis, P.R. 1974. Mining and the environment, in P. A. Rahtz (ed.) Rescue Archaeology. London: Penguin: 130–146.

Reece, R. 2002. Roman coins and pots in fifth-century Britain, in G. Faulkner (ed.) A History of Money. London: Routledge: 72–75.

50.    Section in book if editor unknown

Serre-Bachet, F., Guiot, J. and Tessier, L. 1992a. La dendroclimatologie: pour une historie du climat, in Les veines du temps. Catalogue d’exposition. Paris: Musée du Monde: 93–119.

51.    Journal Articles

Cruise, G.M. 1990. Pollen stratigraphy of two Holocene peat sites. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 63: 299–313.

Dudley, D. 1961. The excavation of the Otterham barrow, Cornwall. Journal of the Royal Insitute of Cornwall 4(10): 62–80.

Jobey, G. 1977. A food vessel burial at Dour Hill, Byrness, Northumberland. Archaeologia Aeliana, 5th series, 5: 204–207.

For sections within journal articles:

Ottaway, P. 2008. The hoard of iron objects, in G. Thomas, The symbolic lives of Late Anglo-Saxon settlements: a cellared structure and iron hoard from Bishopstone, East Sussex. Archaeological Journal 165: 357–382.

52.    Unpublished theses

Unpublished reports and theses should appear in the following form and should normally be included among the published works.

Bottema, S. 1974. Late Quaternary Vegetation History of North-Western Greece. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Groningen.

Riall, N. 2003. Bringing the Renaissance to Tudor England: The role of Richard Fox and his Frieze at St Cross, Winchester. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Wales at Swansea.

Note: No italics because the work is unpublished; not thesis but dissertation.

53.    Unpublished reports or ‘grey literature’

Baker, N. 2004. A Watching Brief on Mardol Head, Shrewsbury: Excavations for the Darwin Gate. Shropshire Archaeology Service, Rep., 20

Optional, add location if known, e.g. for the above: copy in Shropshire HER, Shrewsbury.

For references in the bibliography to a book or monograph with numerous contributions the preferred practice is as follows.

54.    Website

Department of Parks and Wildlife, 2001. Department of Parks and Wildlife. Canberra, Shipwreck inspection, viewed 10 August 2012, <>.

NOTE: You must include the date accessed due to the ephemeral nature of websites. List author/organisation, site date, short title or descriptive explanation, date accessed, and full URL.



55.    The responsibility for supplying all illustrations rests with the contributors. The Editors cannot undertake to obtain published photographs, etc. on their behalf. Where questions of copyright are involved, contributors must obtain the necessary permission well in advance of publication. Permissions should be acquired for a full global and electronic reproduction

56.    The captions should include any necessary copyright information. All images that do not belong to the author must have copyright cleared on them for both print and electronic publication and this is the responsibility of the individual authors

57.    Only figures of the highest quality may be published. Photographs and line illustrations should be submitted in high-resolution digital format.

58.    Useful Information / Definitions.

The description greyscale (or US grayscale), which is used by most graphic software is equivalent to halftone in printing terms, and applies to any monochrome image which contains shades of grey other than 100% solid black and pure white: e.g. a photograph.

The term line is used for images made up of areas, or lines, of solid black and white:

e.g. a plan or an elevation. Note that the inclusion of a simple patch of grey, however small, in such an image defines it greyscale.

The print area of an Offa’s Dyke Journal page is c. 190 x 105 mm (subject to revision: check with Editors). Bearing in mind the fact that a caption will accompany it, the area available for an illustration is approximately 175 x 105 mm or 190 x 100 mm (subject to revision: check with Editors) in the case of a ‘landscape’ page. This should be taken into account when preparing line drawings and when recommending reductions. Ensure that scales (either metric or dual standard) and north points are included where required and that everything which appears on the drawing (trench numbers, room numbers, and so on) relates clearly and consistently to what is said in the text.

59.    Figures should be high quality (1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi for grayscale and 300 dpi for colour). These are the preferred formats for scanned images. Scan photographic prints at 600 dpi, slides at 1200 dpi. Scan black and white line artwork at 600 dpi. Scan mixed line and tone illustrations at 600 dpi. (JPEGS are acceptable if saved to maximum quality.) Submit the image in the size it is intended to appear.

60.    Embedded Images

In no circumstances should images be supplied for publications embedded in text documents or other secondary files, such as PDF documents, word-processor files (e.g. Word), spreadsheets (e.g. Excel), Powerpoint presentations, databases (e.g. Access), or desktop-publisher files (e.g. PageMaker, Publisher, QuarkXpress). In all such cases the image pre-exists the final file in a graphic form and it is in that form, or a TIFF or JPG derived directly from that form, that it should be submitted.

61.    Seeking advice

That an image looks acceptable on a computer screen, or prints satisfactorily on a laser or inkjet printer, does not guarantee that it will print well in the journal. If in doubt, send a sample image to the editor at as early a stage as possible. He will discuss it with the printer and let you know if any adjustment needs to be made.



62.    Tables must be provided in a separate file from the main text. Authors should indicate their approximate position in the text. Tables should normally be submitted as a separate file and as a word document rather than in Excel or other formats.

Try to present tables in as simple a form as possible. The printer will impose the journal’s style on them. Consider whether the table proposed can be fitted into the journal’s page format without reducing the type to an illegibly small size. Always number tables, however small, and refer to them in the text by their numbers, e.g.: ‘Four burials were found with brooches (Table 3).’

Position columns by using single tabs. Multiple spaces or combinations of tabs and spaces merely increases the work which must take place before the table can be set in type.



63.    Typescripts should be very carefully checked before they are forwarded to the Editors. Alterations at proof stage are now so costly that the Editors will be able to permit them only in exceptional circumstances. They will not be unsympathetic towards alterations arising out of new research unless absolutely essential to uphold the accuracy of the existing arguments. One set of e-proofs will be sent to

contributors, but this is intended only to ensure the elimination of printer’s errors.

64.    If proofs are not returned by the date requested, the issue may go to press without author’s corrections.


Howard Williams



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