Bige Habban: An Introduction to Money, Trade and Cross-Border Traffic

Rory Naismith


This short survey examines issues in early medieval cross-border trade, particularly with reference to England, but also drawing comparisons with mainland Europe and other regions of Britain. Three themes are considered: tolls charged on traders and travellers; the vulnerability of traders and the importance of building trust and familiarity; and the practical challenges of moving between different means of exchange.


trade; tolls; exchange; money

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